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Special article
DOI: 10.1016/j.neucie.2018.07.001
Clinical diagnosis scale for pain lumbar of facet origin: Systematic review of literature and pilot study
Escala de diagnóstico clínico para dolor lumbar de origen facetario: revisión sistemática de la literatura y estudio piloto
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Juan Carlos Gómez Vega
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juancarlosgomezvega18@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, Juan Carlos Acevedo-González
Departamento de Neurociencias, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia
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Received 30 November 2017, Accepted 08 May 2018
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Tables (7)
Table 1. List of the 36 signs and symptoms.
Table 2. Assessment questionnaire.
Table 3. Sociodemographic characteristics.
Table 4. Pre-surgical and post-surgical pain assessments.
Table 5. Positive signs and symptoms in the overall population.
Table 6. Positive signs and symptoms in patients with positive blocks.
Table 7. Proposed diagnostic scale for lumbar pain of facet origin.
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Abstract
Introduction

Lumbar pain affects between 60 and 90% of people. It is a frequent cause of disability in adults. Pain may be generated by different anatomical structures such as the facet joint. However, nowadays pain produced by the facet joint has no clinical diagnosis. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to propose a clinical diagnostic scale for lumbar facet syndrome.

Materials and methods

The study was conducted by means of 6 phases as follows, Phase 1, a systematic review of the literature was performed regarding the clinical diagnosis of facet-based lumbar pain based on the PRISMA checklist; Phase 2, a list of signs and symptoms proposed for diagnosis lumbar pain of facet origin was made. Phase 3, the list of signs and symptoms found was submitted to a committee of experts to discriminate the most significant signs and symptoms, these were linked to general sociodemographic variables to develop an evaluation questionnaire; Phase 4, the evaluation questionnaire was applied, including those selected signs and symptoms to a group of patients with clinical diagnosis of facet disease lumbar pain and who underwent a selective facet block. Phase 5, under standard technique selective facet block and subsequent postoperative clinical control at 1 month. Phase 6, given pre and postsurgical results associated with signs present in the patients we propose a clinical scale of diagnosis scale. Descriptive statistics and Stata 12.0 were used as statistical software.

Results

A total of 36 signs and symptoms were found for the diagnosis of lumbar facet syndrome that were submitted to the group of experts, where a total of 12 (8 symptoms and 4 signs) were included for the final survey. 31 patients underwent selective lumbar facet blockade, mostly women, with an average of 60±11.5 years, analogous visual scale of preoperative pain of 8/10, postoperative of 1.7/10, the signs and symptoms most frequently found included in a diagnostic scale were: 3 symptoms (1) axial or bilateral axial lumbar pain, (2) improvement with rest, (3) absence of root pattern, may have pseudoradicular pattern, however, the pain is greater lumbar than pain in the leg and 3 clinical signs (1) Kemp sign, (2) pain induced in joint or transverse process, (3) facet stress sign or Acevedo sign.

Conclusion

The clinical diagnosis of lumbar facet pain is still debated. Few diagnostic scales have been postulated, with little or no external validity, so the present study proposes a diagnostic scale consisting of 3 symptoms and 3 clinical signs.

Keywords:
Low back pain
Facet/zygapophyseal joints
Zygapophyseal joint block
Dorsal branch of the spinal nerve
Resumen
Introducción

El dolor lumbar afecta entre el 60 y 90% de la población y es una causa frecuente de incapacidad en adultos. Puede ser generado por diferentes estructuras anatómicas, entre las cuales se encuentra la faceta articular. Actualmente, el diagnóstico de dolor lumbar de origen facetario depende de la realización de un procedimiento invasivo (bloqueo selectivo) y no puede hacerse exclusivamente con los hallazgos clínicos. Por lo cual, nuestro objetivo es desarrollar una escala de diagnóstico clínico para el dolor lumbar de origen facetario.

Materiales y métodos

El estudio fue realizado por medio de 6 fases de la siguiente manera: Fase 1, se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura respecto al diagnóstico clínico del dolor lumbar de origen facetario basado en la lista de chequeo PRISMA. Fase 2, se realizó una lista de los signos y síntomas propuestos para diagnóstico de dolor lumbar de origen facetario. Fase 3, se sometió la lista de signos y síntomas encontrados a un comité de expertos para discriminar aquellos que son más significativos para los mismos, estos fueron unidos a variables generales sociodemográficas para desarrollar un cuestionario de evaluación. Fase 4, se aplicó el cuestionario de evaluación que incluía aquellos signos y síntomas seleccionados a un grupo de pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de dolor lumbar secundario a enfermedad facetaria y que fueron sometidos a un bloqueo facetario selectivo. Fase 5, bajo técnica estándar se realizó bloqueo facetario selectivo y posterior control clínico postoperatorio a un mes. Fase 6, se relacionaron los resultados pre- y posquirúrgicos con los signos positivos y se propone una escala clínica de evaluación diagnóstica.

Resultados

Se encontraron un total de 36 signos y síntomas para el diagnóstico de síndrome facetario lumbar que fueron sometidos al grupo de expertos, donde fueron incluidos para la encuesta final un total de 12 (8 síntomas y 4 signos). Treinta y un pacientes fueron sometidos a bloqueo facetario lumbar selectivo, en su mayoría mujeres, con un promedio de 60±11,5 años, escala visual análoga del dolor prequirúrgica (EVAD) de 8/10, posquirúrgica de 1,7/10, los signos y síntomas más frecuentemente encontrados incluidos en una escala diagnóstica fueron: 3 síntomas, 1) dolor lumbar axial unilateral o bilateral, 2) mejoría con el reposo, 3) ausencia de patrón radicular, puede tener patrón pseudorradicular, sin embargo, el dolor es mayor el lumbar que dolor en la pierna. Y 3 signos clínicos, 1) signo Kemp, 2) dolor inducido en apófisis articular o transversa, 3) signo de estrés facetario o signo de Acevedo.

Conclusión

El diagnóstico clínico del dolor facetario lumbar no es aún claro. Pocas escalas diagnosticas han sido postuladas, con poca o baja validez externa, por lo cual, el presente estudio propone una escala diagnóstica conformada por 3 síntomas y 3 signos clínicos.

Palabras clave:
Dolor lumbar
Articulación facetaria
Bloqueo facetario lumbar
Rama dorsal del nervio raquídeo

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